Cattle that have now come from that found in the Homacodontidae round Palaeoceen. Primitifnya species found in the phase Plioceen in India. Bali cattle made a lot of commodity meat / beef cattle initially developed in Bali and then spread to several areas such as West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), Sulawesi.
2. SENTRA LIVESTOCK
Bali cattle, cattle Ongole, PO beef (half ongole) and Madura cattle are in the area of West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), Sulawesi. Type of Aberdeen Angus cattle are in Scotland. Simental there are many cattle in Switzerland. Brahman cattle originating from India and many developed in the United States.
The types of beef cattle that are in Indonesia at this time is the speaker of Indonesia and beef cattle were imported. From the types of beef cattle that, each has attributes that typical, good review from outside the form of (the size of the body, marking) and from genetiknya (growth).
Cow-cow of a source of meat is used as Bali cattle, cattle Ongole, PO beef (half ongole) and Madura cattle. In addition, Aceh is also a lot of beef exported to Malaysia (Pinang). From a population of beef cattle, which is considered to be equitable distribution of each are: Bali cattle, beef PO, Madura and Brahman. Bali cattle weight reaches 300-400 kg. karkasnya and the percentage of 56.9%. Aberdeen Angus cattle (Scotland) black fur, not horn, body shape, such as flat board and dense meat, weight age of 1.5 years to reach 650 kg, so that more suitable for beef cattle are kept as. Cattle Simental (Switzerland) small horn, a young brown wool or straw. On the face, knee down and kind of gelambir, white tail tip.
Brahman cattle (from India), many developed in the United States. Karkasnya percentage of 45%. Specialty beef is not too selective to the feed given, the type of feed (grass and feed additional) will be any dimakannya, including feeding the ugly though. Beef cattle are also more immune to the louse and the mosquito bites and heat resistant.
Keeping beef cattle are very profitable, because not only produce meat and milk, but also produce manure and as labor. Cattle can also be used meranih cart, cow dung, also has economic value, including the organic fertilizer is needed by all types of plants. Cow dung can be a source burly that can improve soil structure so that it became more loose and fertile.
All organs cow can be used, among others:
1. Skin, as industrial bags, shoes, belt, hat, jacket.
2. Bone, can be processed into the material adhesive / glue, bone meal and cruel craft
3. Horn, used as craft materials such as comb, wall decorations and many benefits for the cattle interests of mankind.
5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS
The ideal location to build a shed is a region that is located quite far from the settlement, but easily accessible by car. Enclosure must be separated from homes with a minimum distance of 10 meters and the sun should be able to cut through the cage and close to the agricultural land. Pembuatannya can be done in a group or in the middle of rice fields.
6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES BUDIDAYA
6.1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
Pens can be made in the form of single or double, depending on the number of cattle owned. In the single-cage type, placement is done on the cow one line or one row, while the pen bertipe double placement is done on two series of each other or each other for behind. Between the two series are made to line the road.
Preparation for the purpose of my pen (kereman) usually form when a single capacity of the livestock kept only a few. However, when the cattle production is for the commercial, the size of the enclosure should be more knowledgeable and more so that it can accommodate the large number of cattle that much more. Floors should be arranged pens remain clean in order to prevent the occurrence of various diseases. Floors made of soil cement or compact, and easy to clean from cow dung. Dialasi ground floor with a straw bed dry as a warm enclosure.
Pens and all the equipment that should never be used disuci hamakan first with disinfectant, such as creolin, lysol, and other materials. The size of the enclosure made for a mature bull x2 is 1.5 m or 2.5 m x2, while for adult female cow is 1.8 m and x2 for the calf is 1.5 m x1 tail, with a high top, 2-2, 5 m of land. The temperature in the enclosure around 25-40 degrees C (average 33 degrees C) and
75% humidity. Location of maintenance can be done on the low (100-500 m) to high (> 500 m).
For the maintenance of cattle pens must be clean and not humid. Making pens must observe some basic requirements which include the construction, location, size and equipment shed.
1. Construction and location of the enclosure
Construction cowshed as a house of wood. Pen-shaped roof closed and one / two sloping sides. Pens made solid floor, higher than the surrounding land and slightly sloping towards ditch outside the enclosure. This means that the water that is visible, including cow urine easily flow to the floor outside the enclosure remain dry. Construction materials enclosure is log / board coming from the wood is strong. Cowshed can not be a closed meeting, but slightly open so that air circulation inside smoothly. Included in the series providing fodder is clean drinking water. Given in drinking water ad libitum, means must be available and should not be running out at any time. Enclosure must be separated from homes with a minimum distance of 10 meters and the sun should be able to penetrate the enclosure. Making cowshed groups can be done in the middle of a rice field / fields.
2. Size Kandang
Before making the enclosure should be first the number of cattle that will be maintained. The size of a cattle pen for adult male is 1.5 x 2 m. While for a female adult cow is 1.8 x 2 m and to a calf just 1.5 x1 m.
3. Equipment Kandang
Included in the equipment shed is a place to drink and feed, which should be made outside the cage, but still under the roof. Feed made the place a bit higher so that the feed is not given diinjak board / dirt mixed. Place drinking water should be made permanent, cement tanks, and a little higher than on the surface of the floor. Thus, dirt and urine is not mixed therein. Other necessary equipment is provided broom, brush, shovel, sickle, and a place to bathe cows. All the equipment is to clean the cage so that cattle avoid interference from the disease at a time can be used to bathe cows.
Terms of livestock to be considered are:
1. Have marked the ear, meaning pedet has been registered and full silsilahnya.
2. His eyes look bright and clean.
3. There are no signs often need, subject to pernafasannya and not out of the nose mucus.
4. Kukunya not be touched when you feel hot.
5. There is no visible external parasites on the skin and bulunya.
6. There are no signs of diarrhea in the tail and anus.
7. There are no signs of damage to skin and fur kerontokan.
8. Pusarnya clean and dry, if still soft and does not indicate that the feathered pedet was still more than two days.
To produce the meat, choose the type of cattle that fit the type of Bali cattle, Brahman cattle, PO cattle, and cattle that are suitable and many found in the local area. The characteristics of beef cattle Pedaging type is as follows:
1. in the body, big, square-shaped / ball.
2. the maximum quality of meat and easily marketed.
3. relatively rapid growth rate.
4. high-efficiency material.
Maintenance includes the provision of beef cattle feed (ransum) and pens. Function in the maintenance of cattle pens are:
1. Protect cattle from the rain and hot sun.
2. Simplify maintenance and monitoring.
3. Maintaining security and health of cattle.
Feed is a major source of energy for growth and the energy. The better the quality and amount of feed given, the greater power that caused and are still big energy stored in the flesh.
1. Sanitation and preventive action
On the maintenance-intensive beef cattle breeder dikandangkan so easy mengawasinya, while maintaining an extensive monitoring difficult because the beef-cattle that are left free to live.
2. Giving Feeds
In general, each cow requires a hijauan food. Cattle in the growth, while breastfeeding, and that does not require feed saturated adequate in terms of quality and quantity. Feeding can be done in 3 ways: namely penggembalaan (Pasture fattening), kereman (dry lot faatening) and how a combination of first and second.
Penggembalaan do with the release in the cow-cow pasture, which is usually done in areas that have a place penggembalaan wide, and takes about 5-7 hours per day. In this way, it does not require additional feed ransum brace because cattle have been eating various types of grass.
Feed can be given to the way dijatah / who are known by the term kereman. Cattle feed and the dikandangkan obtained from the field, rice / other places. Every day cattle feed requires approximately 10% of body weight and feed an additional 1% - 2% of body weight. Ransum additional fine or a bran bekatul, coconut oilcake, GAPLEK, pulp know. given mixed with the grass field in the feed. In addition, the mineral can be added as a salt form of brace, kapus. Fodder in the form of a mixture with a certain amount of comparison and is known by the term ransum.
Feeding cattle the answer is a combination between penggembalaan and keraman. According to the situation, the type of hijauan divided into 3 categories, namely hijauan fresh, dry hijauan, and silase. Hijauan is a kind of fresh herb, beans (legu minosa) and other green plants. A good grass for fodder is the elephant grass, grass king (King grass), turi leaves, leaves Lamtoro.
Hijauan dry hijauan came from a fresh dried deliberately with the goal to be stored longer hold. Included in hijauan is dry rice straw, peanut straw, maize straw, etc.. used in the dry season. Hijauan classified this type of feed which contains a lot of coarse fibers.
Hijauan fresh silase can be preserved. In short silase making of this can be explained as follows: hijauan which will be made silase closed meeting, so that the fermentation process going. Results from this is that the process is called silase. The examples that have been in the silase among others silase maize, grass silase, silase rice straw, etc..
3. Maintenance Kandang
Ditimbun dirt in other places so that the process of fermentation (+1-2 sunday) and turned into manure that is mature and well. Cowshed can not be a closed meeting (open slightly) so that the air circulation inside running smoothly. Clean drinking water must be available at any time. Feed and drinking places should be made outside the cage but still below the roof. Feed made the place a bit higher so that the feed given diinjak not tread or mixed with dirt. Meanwhile, the water should be made permanent, cement tanks, and a little higher than the surface of the floor. Also provide equipment to bathe cows.
7. Pests and diseases
1. Diseases antraks
* The cause: Bacillus anthracis is transmitted through direct contact, food / drink or inhalation.
1. high fever, body weakness and trembling;
2. respiratory disturbances;
3. gland swelling in the chest, neck, body and genitals full boil;
4. sometimes blood red black out through the nose, ears, mouth, anus and vagina;
5. liquid sewage and livestock are often mixed with blood;
6. swollen spleen and colored black.
* Control: vaccination, antibiotic treatment, isolate the infected cow and bury / burn the dead cow.
2. Nails and mouth disease (PMK) or disease Apthae epizootica (AE)
* The cause: a virus is spread through direct contact with urine, water, milk, saliva and other substances that bacteria tercemar AE.
1. mouth cavity, tongue, and their feet blister or tracak and there is a rounded protrusion that contain clear fluid;
2. heat or fever, body temperature decreased dramatically;
3. appetite decreased even does not want to eat at all;
4. excessive saliva out.
* Control: vaccination and the sick cow exiled and treated separately.
3. Diseases ngorok / mendekur or disease Septichaema epizootica (SE)
* Causes: bacteria Pasturella multocida. Penularannya through food and beverages tercemar bacteria.
1. skin and mucous membrane of the tongue swell, red and kebiruan;
2. neck, anus, vulva and swell;
3. inflame the lungs, and intestinal mucous stomach acid and crimson;
4. fever and difficult breathing, so that people like ngorok. In the situation is very severe, cattle will die in the time between 12-36 hours.
* Control: SE and anti-vaccination given antibiotics or sulfa.
4. Disease or inflammation nail nails decay (foot rot)
* The disease attacks the cow is kept in a cage wet and dirty.
1. germinal nail swelling around the fissure and remove the white turbid liquid;
2. kuku skin peel;
3. grow benjolan that cause pain;
4. cattle and game can finally paralyzed.
Control of the cattle disease is best to keep the cattle with the precautions. Precautions to keep the cattle are:
1. Keep the pens and their equipment, including bath cow.
2. Cattle are separated by a sick cow healthy and treatment is done immediately.
3. Mengusakan stall floor is always dry.
4. Checking the cattle regularly conducted vaccination and appropriate instructions.
8.1. Main results
Results from the main cultivation of cow meat is cut
8.2. Additional results
Besides the meat into the culture, skin kotorannya and also as a result of the addition of beef cattle farming.
There are several principles that must be technical in cutting cattle that results obtained by cutting the good, namely:
1. Beef cattle must diistirahatkan before cutting
2. Beef cattle must be clean, free from dust and dirt that can contaminate meat.
3. Cutting cattle must be done as soon as possible, and the pain suffered by livestock grown little blood and may have to quit completely.
4. All the processes used must be designed to reduce the number and type of microorganisms pencemar minimal as possible.
Barking at the cows that have been disembelih can be done with the blunt knife or griping that does not damage the skin. Cowhide cleaned of flesh, fat, blood stains or dirt attached. If you are clean, with an skelter made from wood, dried cow skin in the range. Position the most good for drying with the sun is in a position angle 45 degrees.
9.3. Expenditure offal
After the cows skinned, viscera (visceral) or often called the viscera issued with the carcass is cut up (meat) on the belly of a cow.
9.4. Cutting carcass
End of a beef cattle farm produce is berkuantitas carcass quality and meat recahan so high that you can dikonsumsipun high. Beef cattle are considered a good result if the carcass can be as much as 59% of the cow's body weight and eventually will be 46.50% recahan meat that can be consumed. So that it can be said that from a cow that will not cut into the whole carcass and of the whole carcass will not produce all the meat that can be consumed by humans. Thus, to construe the carcass and the meat will be, made the assessment before cattle production. In the developed countries there is a specification for pengkelasan (grading) to steer, heifer and cow that will be cut.
Carcass be split into two parts, namely the body of the carcass left and the right carcass body. Carcass cut-cut into the sub-neck, front thigh, rear thigh, side and back. Pieces are separated into parts meat, fat, bone and tendon. Cutting carcass must have a good handling that does not quickly become damaged, especially the quality and hygienitasnya. For the condition of carcass affected by the role of microorganisms during the process of cutting expenditure and offal.
Meat from the carcass has some quality class in accordance with the framework of its location on the body. The first is the quality of meat in the thigh meat (round) of approximately 20%, the number two is the meat of the lumbar (loin), approximately 17%, number three is the meat back and rib (rib) is approximately 9%, the number four meat is the shoulder (chuck) approximately 26%, the number five is the meat of the breast (brisk) approximately 5%, the number six meat abdomen (frank) approximately 4%, the number seven is the flesh side until the bottom of the stomach down (plate & suet) approximately 11%, and the number eight is the meat of the forefoot (foreshank) approximately 2.1%. The percentage of the parts of the carcass to the calculated weight of the carcass (100%). Recahan carcass percentage is calculated as follows:
Percentage = Number of recahan carcass weight recahan / carcass weight x 100%
The term for the rest of the carcass that can be eaten called edible offal, and that can not be eaten is inedible offal (such as horn, feather, channel urine, and other parts that can not be eaten).
10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BUDIDAYA
10.1. Cultivating Business Analysis
Approximate analysis of beef cattle farming kereman year in Bangli scale 25 tails in 1999 are as follows:
1. Production Cost
1. The purchase of 25 tails bakalan: 25 x 250 kg x Rp. 7800, - -----------------------> Rp. 48,750,000, --
2. Kandang ------------------------------------------------- --------------------> Rp. 1.000.000, --
* Hijauan: 25 x 35 x Rp.37 kg, 50 x 365 days --------------> Rp. 12.000.000, --
* Concentrate: 2kg x 25 x Rp. 410, - x 365 days ------------> Rp. 7,482,500, --
4. Retribution health of cattle: 25 x Rp. 3000, - ---------------> Rp. 75.000, --
The number of production costs ----------------------------------------------- ------------> Rp. 69,307,500, --
1. Sales of beef kereman Additional body weight: 25 x 365 x 0.8 kg = 7,300 kg, as far as one after the cow Weight: (25 x 250 kg) + 7,300 kg = 13,550 kg
* Live cattle selling price: Rp. 8200, -/kg x --------------------------> Rp 13,550 kg. 111,110,000, --
2. Sales of wet dirt: 25 x 365 x 10 kg x Rp. 12, - ------------------------> Rp. 1,095,000, --
Number of Revenue ------------------------------------------------ -------------> Rp. 112,205,000, --
Regardless of the cost advantage of internal Penggemukan 25 cows for a year. ---------> Rp. 42,897,500, --
4. Parameters of the business: a. B / C ratio = 1.61
10.2. Gambaran Peluang Agribusiness
Beef cattle have a high economic potential as a piece of cattle and livestock seed. During this beef cattle can have any meat for local needs such as household, hotel, restaurant, industry, trade between the islands. Main market is the big cities such as Jakarta metropolitan city. Meat for consumers in Indonesia can be classified into several segments, namely:
1. Consumer End
Consumer end, called the consumer or household is a buyers-buyers who bought to meet the individual needs and desires. The portion that covers most of the meat consumption, estimated to reach 98% of total consumption. They can be grouped into more ova sub segments, namely:
1. Consumers in the country (The above middle)
This segment is the largest segment of the needs met most of the meat supply in the country who still do not regard as a certain quality of health and taste requirements.
2. Consumer foreign
Consumer foreign families include diplomats, employees of the company and some tourist porsinya this relatively small and not significant. In addition there is also the possibility of foreign countries which have not yet reached by the supplier in the country, meaning that export has not been done / is done porsinya if not significant.
2. Consumer Industries
Consumer industry is a buyer-buyers who use the meat to be processed back into other products and sold in order to get more profit. Consumer mainly include: hotel and restauran and the increasing number of As for the meat trade governance in the countries we are set in the Presidential Instruction number 4 in 1985 about kebijakansanakan smooth flow of goods to support economic activity. In Indonesia, there are 3 organizations that act as suppliers of meat, namely:
1. KOPPHI (Cooperative cutting Animals Australia), representing the people of livestock production.
2. APFINDO (farmer Feedlot Association (developed) Indonesia), which represents breeders developed
3. ASPIDI (Meat Importers Association of Indonesia).
1. Abbas Djarijah Siregar. 1996, Business Livestock Cattle, Kanisius, Yogyakarta.
2. Yusni Bandini. 1997, Bali Cattle, spreader Swadaya, Jakarta.
3. Teuku Nusyirwan Jacoeb and Sayid Munandar. 1991, Technical Instructions Cow Cut Maintenance, Directorate of Production Peternaka
4. Directorate General of Animal Husbandry Department of Agriculture, Jakarta Law Santosa. 1995, Tata Laksana Livestock Cow Maintenance, Swadaya spreader,
5. The National Livestock Management Industry. 24 January 1994, Master's Program Management UGM, Yogyakarta.
6. Kohl, RL. and J.N. Uhl. 1986, Marketing of Agricultural Products, 5 th ed, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.
12. CONTACT RELATIONS
1. Project Rural Community Economic Development - BAPPENAS Jl.Sunda Coconut No. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office Minister of State Research and Technology, Deputy Pendayagunaan and Pemasyarakatan Iptek, BPPT II Building 6 Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Web Site: http://www.ristek.go.id
Source: Project Development of Rural Economic Society, Bappenas
PENGEMUKAN beef cattle KEREMAN SYSTEM
Technology and methods pengemukan cow
Cattle potential, hijauan fresh food brace, concentrate, vitamins, drinking water and medicines
Weight, measure, buckets, sickle, hoe, a plastic bag, etc..
4. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES
Developed is essentially exploit the genetic potential to grow and store fat in the body of a maximum period of 6 months. Kereman maintenance system is in the cage with a given feed basis hijauan (leguminosa and grass), and additional feed (concentrate). Number of additional feed at least 1 1 / 2% body weight with a protein matrix 14 -16%.
1. Cattle bakalan
Age cattle that will be fattened bull is young or adult, lean and healthy. Body weight at least 200 kg of beef, with less between the ages 1-1,5 years
2. Additional feed (concentrate)
To get the cow growing quickly with the need to offset the addition of food brace, which is easily obtained, among others, with a limit in the use of ransum (9 / 100 grams) of rice bran / katul 60, stem sago (sago heart) 6, 30 oilcake coconut, flour 3 fish, salt 0.5 and 0.5 mixed minerals.
Corral must distance 10 - 20 m from the house or water sources. Size cage tail is 125 cm wide and 2 m long, try to stall floor with cement pad and not tarnish / dirty. Places to eat, drink and salt should be easily reached by livestock. Cattle dung should be cleaned every day and gathering the dirt to make compost from a separate enclosure.
Ministry of Agriculture, http://www.deptan.go.id, March 2001
6. CONTACT RELATIONS
RI Department of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture Office - Jalan Harsono RM No. 3, Ragunan - Pasar Minggu, Jakarta 12550 - Indonesia