Planting peppers rainy season means to bear the risk of failure due to disease. But if successful, the high price of chili peppers will provide huge profits for farmers. With site selection, varieties, and cultivation technology, it is easy to achieve success.Actually, the risk of failure to grow chili peppers in the wet season, high. Rain will continue to increase humidity around the planting area. This will invite the 'arrival' of fungi or bacteria that are harmful to plants. To overcome this, needs to be some "special tricks".
LOCATION AND VARIETIESThe first tips is to prepare the seedling media. This is important because the rainy season is very difficult to find dry land. Similarly pillar and girder cantilever plants must be available before planting begins.In addition, the amount of labor required more than usual. For example, the installation of a silver black mulch should be completed before late afternoon, as most likely it will rain. This work should not be delayed, because the seeds must be immediately removed. Do not wait until the age of seedlings growing, so too late transplanting. Age of seedlings ready to move will determine the production of fruit. For hybrids of red chili, seeds should be removed 17-21 days after planting in the lowlands and 23-28 days after planting in the highlands.Inventories of pesticides, especially fungicides and adhesive should be greater than the dry season. This is to anticipate possible attacks by fungi and bacteria due to high humidity around the plant.Selection of planting site will determine the success of further growth. Location of former cultivation of rice, beans, corn, cabbage could be the alternative. The important thing is not to choose former Solanaccae family plants such as tomatoes, potatoes and eggplant.In addition to the above conditions, the soil should be rich in organic matter, pH 5.5 to 6.5, slightly crumbly and contains clay, so drainage will run fine. If not, the ground will be difficult to remove water. As a result, plant roots will be flooded and become rotten.The selection of varieties is also an important first step to support the success of chili cultivation in the rainy season. Select disease resistant varieties. In the example of hybrid varieties of hot peppers beauty and hero. Varieties are known to have a high tolerance caused by a virus.NurseriesWhen breeding, should the number of sowing seeds that will pack more than the usual 1-2. Excess hose sowing seeds one week after seeding is completed. The goal as a backup stitching.The sowing of seeds planted in polybags of size 5 cm x 7 cm, containing media manure, sand and pesticides. Polybag, polybags was placed on nursery shelves as high as 1.2 m. distance between the bottom shelf of land with 40 cm. meant for chili seeds not exposed to splashing rain.The disease usually attacks the seedlings were horizontal rod or dumping off the attack of fungi Pythium aphanidermatum. To fix this, spray fungicides contain active promakarb hydrochloride with a concentration of 0.5 to 1.0 ml / l when seedlings have true leaves appear (12-14 days after planting).By transplanting the seedlings sorted. Only healthy and uniform seeds viable for planting.
PLANT POPULATIONSeedlings planted in beds. The size beds adapted to conditions during the rainy season. 100-110 cm wide beds, 60-70 cm wide trench, the length of beds less than 12 m. it is easier for plant maintenance and disposal of excess water. Seedbed at least 50 cm high, so the roots are not flooded when it rains. Also so that rain water is wasted completely.Beds need to shut down black plastic mulch silver black. The goal is to reduce the evaporation of water in the soil and avoid splashing rain water which can lead to the arrival of the fungus.Installation of mulch should be done after the rain, to facilitate penancapan bamboo on the outskirts of mulch. Installation of mulch should be completed right away, do not delay.The number of beds depending on the area of land. To be sure, the plant population is not more than 17,000 plants per hectare. The population is too dense will stimulate the arrival of pests and diseases. Plant spacing 60 cm x 65 cm with a zig-zag plant systems or 65 cm x 70 cm with cropping system vis-a-vis inter-row crops.If the land-shaped terraces, planting should be started from the stretch of bottom. The goal when the old-old plants to disease, he would not infect the younger crop through irrigation.Furthermore, to prevent the collapse of crop due to rain and wind, fitted double stake. Marker associated with a thin bamboo bars. It can also be a strong rope.In addition, a week after planting, the shoots that grow must dirempel or pruned to form branches. If not trimmed, the leaves at the bottom will be very dense, so it would 'invite' fungi.
FERTILIZATIONTo improve plant resistance against pests and diseases are used cooked from 0.75 to 1.0 kg manure cropping and 80-100 grams of a mixture of chemical fertilizers, with a ratio of ZA: Urea: TSP: KCl, at 2: 1: 1.5: 1 , 5.Fertilization supplement performed after planting 12-14 days after planting, with leaf N fertilizer such as Kemira Green or Complesal Special Tonic. Giving it just once, whereas foliar fertilizer elements of high P and K are given once at age 40 days after planting, such as Red or Complesal Kemira Super Tonic.In addition to N fertilizers, micro fertilizers are also provided through the leaves. The goal is to prevent loss of fruit and increase plant resistance. This is the type of fertilizer micro multimicro given twice, at the age of 25 and 53 days after planting.Nitrogen fertilization (ZA and urea) are too high or too frequently, resulting in a plant is too fertile, so many leaves are formed.Formation of reduced fruit, a succulent stems. This makes the plants susceptible to disease and easily broken when hit by rainfall.
PEST AND DISEASEAnother important treatment is to monitor pests and diseases. In the rainy season, the disease attacks much more dangerous than the pest attack. Usually the attacks occur when plants begin to bear fruit (at 40 days after planting). Diseases that usually attack mainly Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) and bacterial wilt (Psedomonas solanaceae). To overcome this, the affected plants are revoked and the surrounding plants watered with a solution of formalin or KMnO4 concentration of 0.2%.Pests that usually attack the fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis). Control of these pests can be done by spraying insecticides contain active deltamerin from 0.2 to 0.4 ml / l, triazofoz 1-2 ml / l. can also be used with sex pheromone traps made of the active ingredient methyl eugenol.At the time of fruiting plants bushy, antraknosa or "yaws" (Colletotrichum capsici) often attack the chilli plant. To fix this, use fungicides contain active karbendazim 1-2 g / l alternately with fungicides other contacts. Antraknosa addition, bacterial spot disease (Xanthomonas campestris) also raged in the rainy season. Characteristics, in the leaves there are patches of wetness like no traces of oil. The leaves are attacked as soon as possible learned to avoid the spread of this disease. Moreover, it can also be used to contain active fungicide copper oxychloride with concentration 2-3 g / l.Preventive measures that can be done is to clean up weeds-weeds in the vicinity of the trench between the beds, untukmengurangi moisture and prevent weed plant as a host of pests and diseases. The leaves are plucked attacked and destroyed, so as not to spread to healthy plants. Diseased plants that should be immediately removed and burned. The area around affected plants were isolated with special treatment according to disease types.Source: Trubus - TH XXV - June 1994